The call by Maronite Patriarch Mar Bechara Boutros al-Rai for a special international conference, under the auspices of the United Nations, to help Lebanon get out of its crises, came after the political class failed to find solutions to the miserable conditions experienced by this country. Al-Rai’s call has received the support of a wide spectrum of Christians, Sunnis and Druze, in addition to opponents of Hezbollah among the Shiites.
The US-mediated "framework agreement" that was reached between Lebanon and Israel regarding negotiation over the delimitation of the maritime boundaries, which was announced at the beginning of October 2020, raises a question about whether this agreement is a prelude to the emergence of new dynamics that would rearrange the regional scene and its equations.
For eight months, Lebanon has been suffering from an intense governmental crisis, and it does not seem that it would be easily solved in the light of the deep divisions between the various political actors, despite the severity of the economic and living crisis facing the Lebanese people. International and Arab efforts have failed to overcome the obstacles facing the government formation, just as the efforts of the Maronite Patriarch Mar Bechara Boutros al-Rai have failed to find a common ground between President Michel Aoun and Prime Minister-designate Saad Hariri.
This paper sheds light on the complexities of the crisis of forming the Lebanese government, its developments, its main obstacles, and the options available to its designated head for the success and adoption of his composition.
The explosion that occurred in the port of Beirut on 4 August 2020 has caused a local shock in Lebanon and in all capitals of the world in a manner that resembles a "general international revolution" in how to approach the Lebanese file. It has also caused an internal political earthquake, from the violent movement of the Lebanese street that is opposed to the ruling class as a whole, to the resignation of Hassan Diab's government on 10 August 2020 and the putting forward for discussion of the various options and scenarios that await Lebanon in the coming days and weeks.
The Lebanese Hezbollah experienced developments and transformations in recent years that would have ramifications on its trajectory and consequences on Lebanon and the region as a whole.
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