Indications have emerged that coronavirus has led to the emergence of new patterns of extremism and terrorism. This raises questions about the implications of the coronavirus pandemic for this phenomenon and the extent of its effects on the agendas and nature of terrorist groups as well as the potential future trends after the end of this serious epidemic crisis.
In March 2019, the stronghold of the Islamic State (Daesh, IS) in Syria collapsed, and the last location of its strongholds fell in the Syrian town of Baghuz. As a result of this defeat, many foreign fighters sought to return to their home countries or flee as mobile fighters. The issue became more urgent after US President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw his forces from northeastern Syria in October 2019. This enabled Turkey to seize the opportunity to launch military operations in the region, which prompted the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF, QSD), which hold thousands of Daesh fighters and their families, to demand that countries receive their terrorist citizens. This forced many states to deal with the challenges raised by the issue of the returning foreign fighters.
At a time when the world thought that terrorism has started to fade away with the retreat of al-Qaeda network by early 2010, this phenomenon has renewed, even gained momentum, fueled by protests of the Arab Spring in 2011.
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