Extremism and Terrorism

The Returnees of Daesh: Classification, Risks and Integration

Maher Farghaly | 20 Oct 2020

In March 2019, the stronghold of the Islamic State (Daesh, IS) in Syria collapsed, and the last location of its strongholds fell in the Syrian town of Baghuz. As a result of this defeat, many foreign fighters sought to return to their home countries or flee as mobile fighters. The issue became more urgent after US President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw his forces from northeastern Syria in October 2019. This enabled Turkey to seize the opportunity to launch military operations in the region, which prompted the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF, QSD), which hold thousands of Daesh fighters and their families, to demand that countries receive their terrorist citizens. This forced many states to deal with the challenges raised by the issue of the returning foreign fighters.

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The Growing Relationship between Iran and al-Shabab Movement in Somalia: Motives and Potential Consequences

​Ahmed Askar | 28 Jul 2020

In recent years, there have been increasing signs that Iran and Al-Shabaab have been growing closer. Iran is aspiring to expand its influence and its activities throughout the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea region by strengthening its ties to emerging movements and organizations, such as the Houthis in Yemen and Al-Shabaab in Somalia, and using these groups to achieve its strategic goals and create a new balance between the regional and international powers active in the region. This poses a clear threat to security and stability in the region and to these powers’ strategic interests; they have therefore been forced to work together to attempt to sever the ties between Tehran and Al-Shabaab and prevent further instability in the region.

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The Increased Activity of Al-Shabaab in the Horn of Africa: Implications and Limits

Ahmad Askar | 18 Feb 2020

Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, more commonly known as Al-Shabaab, remains the main security challenge in Somalia and one of the most significant threats to regional stability and security in the Horn of Africa given the recent uptick in the group's activity in Somalia and its growing expansion in the region. The terrorist attacks launched by the group are now claiming the lives of more civilians, military and government officials. This is in addition to targeting government interests and institutions inside and outside Somalia, which places a significant burden on the countries of the Horn of Africa and regional forces due to the risks and threats posed by the group.

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