Policy Papers http://epc.ae/publication-type/policy-papers en Shifts in the US Strategic Assessment of the Middle East: Security Implications for the Gulf Region http://epc.ae/publication/shifts-in-the-us-strategic-assessment-of-the-middle-east-security-implications-for-the-gulf-region <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Shifts in the US Strategic Assessment of the Middle East: Security Implications for the Gulf Region</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 10/30/2016 - 11:38</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>During the Obama administration, US foreign policy underwent a strategic shift in its approach to US objectives and interests in the Middle East in general, and in the Gulf region in particular. President Obama elaborated on this new trend in an interview with Jeffery Goldberg, published in “The Atlantic” in its April 2016 issue. The ensuing debate, or rather controversy, raised by Obama’s views and the current US policy towards the region is further proof that the relationship between the US and regional states has entered a new stage.</p> <p>This paper addresses the shifts in US strategy in the Middle East, and their impact on regional security and stability. It also attempts to explore their future trajectories and reflections on the future US-GCC relations, particularly under the new US administration of President Donald Trump.</p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2016-10/RTX1D102_0.jpg" width="1200" height="714" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/gcc" hreflang="en">GCC</a></div> Sun, 30 Oct 2016 11:38:14 +0000 Anonymous 6725 at http://epc.ae "Killing in the name of Allah", Terrorist Groups: Structures, Trajectories and Ends http://epc.ae/publication/killing-in-the-name-of-allah-terrorist-groups-structures-trajectories-and-ends <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">&quot;Killing in the name of Allah&quot;, Terrorist Groups: Structures, Trajectories and Ends</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 11/05/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>At a time when the world thought that terrorism has started to fade away with the retreat of al-Qaeda network by early 2010, this phenomenon has renewed, even gained momentum, fueled by protests of the Arab Spring in 2011. These protests have exacerbated divisions and polarization in some countries of the region and ignited civil wars in other countries, leading to the decline of the state’s authority and failure. One of the incidental results of these shifts was the rise of terrorist groups that surpass the traditional pattern of terrorist organizations, notably, the so-called Islamic State (IS) which controls vast swathes of territory in Iraq and Syria and has declared the Islamic Caliphate in these areas in June 2014.</p> <p> </p> <p>This paper studies the new terrorist phenomenon by dealing with patterns and geographical distribution of terrorist groups, highlight their strategies and various tactics, review international and national anti-terrorism policies, and attempt to foresee future trajectories of terrorism. The paper does not deal with organized terrorist groups only, but focusses on unorganized terrorism as well. In addition, it deals with Shiite militias as another dimension of the current phenomenon of terrorism.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fecb7d0.jpg" width="667" height="564" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/gcc" hreflang="en">GCC</a></div> Thu, 05 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5859 at http://epc.ae Egypt: Current Reality and Foreseeing Future Transitions http://epc.ae/publication/egypt-current-reality-and-foreseeing-future-transitions <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt: Current Reality and Foreseeing Future Transitions</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 05/10/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since the revolution of Jan. 25, 2011, Egypt has been suffering from an unprecedented political turmoil in its modern history. Egypt’s political system is currently at a pivotal juncture and faces three major challenges: a decline in the political system’s competence to respond to structural challenges facing the Egyptian state and society; the degradation of the system’s foundations of legitimacy and its vague identity and political orientation and the growing regional and international fluidity.<br /> This paper aims to deconstruct the current political, economic and social reality in Egypt in order to define the elements of the crisis faced by the process of public policy making in the country. To this end, the paper will focus on three major themes: <br /> First, the outcomes of the rapid process of political change in Egypt since the revolutionary movement of Jan. 25, 2011, <br /> Second, discuss elements of the economic crisis in the country and conditions to overcome this crisis,<br /> Third, deal with the orientations of Egypt’s foreign policy and limitations of the role Cairo can play in various regional circles under the current conditions, with a focus on the dynamics of its relations with GCC countries</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19feb3551.jpg" width="373" height="324" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 10 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5858 at http://epc.ae Turkey: The Future of Model and Role http://epc.ae/publication/turkey-the-future-of-model-and-role <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Turkey: The Future of Model and Role</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/06/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>When the Justice and Development Party (JDP) came to office, Turkey has started to create soft regional influence by using the Islamist discourse. It also employed Arab Spring to cement this influence through its cooperation with the US and some of its Arab friends in the region. Furthermore, Ankara employed Islamist movements to become more influential. This led some analysts to talk about Turkey’s imperial expansion in the region, which was dubbed, “Neo-Ottomanism”. These aspirations of Turkey, however, have clashed with the Arab stand which curtailed Turkey’s aspirations.<br /> Turkey appears as a pragmatic state seeking to unite a great deal of contradictions; it is a Sunni state, yet it transcends its doctrinal dimensions and seems to hold no reservations about improving its ties with Iran, despite the latter adopting a sectarian regional project. Furthermore, the rise of JDP, with its Islamist orientation, has not stopped Ankara from pursuing membership into NATO or the EU or ties with Israel. It is expected that the economy and energy factors will define the nature of Turkey’s approach towards the region during the next decade.<br /> The historical formation of the Turkish national identity faced huge challenges; the constitution of modern Turkey considers “Turkishness” as a supra-identity, one that transcends all others, whether they be religious, sectarian or even ethnic. The formation of Turkey’s national identity was born out of the historical conditions that gave rise to it, a seemingly natural progression to Ankara. What emerged as the national identity in Turkey is, however, a strange mix that is full of contradictions and inconsistencies, a mixture that depends on misrepresentations and historical claims, even though some are grossly incorrect. <br /> Kurds were the only people to be recognized as a minority in the Turkish constitution which excludes Arabs, Armenians or Alawites. Despite their formal recognition, Kurds have not yet received cultural, educational, political or administrative rights, because Ankara is still dealing with this minority on national security bases, not on constitutional rights.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fd3ccd2.jpg" width="502" height="478" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/turkey" hreflang="en">Turkey</a></div> Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5843 at http://epc.ae The Houthi Movement: Political, Military and Doctrinal Dilemmas http://epc.ae/publication/the-houthi-movement-political-military-and-doctrinal-dilemmas <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Houthi Movement: Political, Military and Doctrinal Dilemmas</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The unity in Yemen led to a new situation where followers of the Zaidi doctrine were able to establish the following political and cultural movements to regain their role and preserve their identity, such as Al-Haq Party, which included scholars, intellectuals and politicians. It took part in the first parliamentary elections and won two seats. One of them was occupied by Hussein Badr Eddin al-Houthi, the founding father of the Houthi Movement, and the Believing Youth Forum, which proved itself to be a cultural and educational movement dedicated to youths. Hussein Badr Eddin al-Houthi saw these institutions as a platform to call Zaidi youths in Sa’dah. The Houthi movement capitalized on chaos and confusion in Yemen following the Arab Spring. Furthermore, the movement received support from the leaders of the Iranian Islamic Revolution. Yemeni unity came under threat due to the decline of the state’s sovereignty, the deep rift among parties of the transitional process and the spread of arms. The Houthi movement shifted the Zaidi sect in Yemen from its traditional jurisprudential and social dimension after the fall of the Imamate rule into a form of political action supported by armed forces, loaded with a cross-border missionary thought that converged politically with the Iranian project in the region. This convergence came despite the jurisprudential and doctrinal disagreement between the Zaidis and the Twelvers. The status quo, however, is a convergence between the Zaidi and Ja’fari schools of thought on the premise of a belief in the ideas of imamate and the leadership of al al-Bayt (Household of the Prophet), and idea of revolution.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fb82898.jpg" width="583" height="496" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/yemen" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5826 at http://epc.ae The Doctrinal Foundations of Iran’s Geopolitical Project http://epc.ae/publication/the-doctrinal-foundations-of-irans-geopolitical-project <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Doctrinal Foundations of Iran’s Geopolitical Project</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 02/05/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since 1979, Iran’s Islamic revolution has resumed the Safavid state project which has rebuilt the Iranian identity on a combination of selected Iranian national images and the Shiite doctrine. The revolution has consolidated a closed framework for the identity in the constitution. Thus the Islamic regime has failed to build a nation-state that takes in various religious, doctrinal and national components of society. At the same time, the Islamic revolution has led to a post-revolutionary regime whose state institutions are wrapped in missionary zeal. This duality has led to a contrast between the ideological boundaries of the revolution and the geographical boundaries of the Iranian state. In the wake of the Arab Spring uprisings, Iran lost among Sunni Arabs the soft power it had built through “resistance and opposition” due to its interference in the Syrian crisis. Iran resorted to escalating sectarian discourse to cement easily its Shiite centrality in the region. This paper is an inquiry into the Iranian strategic theorization for this centrality.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-preview field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="http://epc.ae/sites/default/files/2016-12/IRAN_ENG_INNER%20ni8_UPP_111_0.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=25647574">IRAN_ENG_INNER ni8_UPP_111.pdf</a></span> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fb69316.jpg" width="630" height="304" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/iran" hreflang="en">Iran</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-full-document field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Full Document</div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="http://epc.ae/sites/default/files/2016-12/IRAN_ENG_INNER%20ni8_UPP_111.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=25647574">IRAN_ENG_INNER ni8_UPP_111.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publisher field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publisher</div> <div class="field__item">Emirates Policy Center</div> </div> Thu, 05 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5825 at http://epc.ae Possible Tracks for the Future between the State and Civil Youths http://epc.ae/publication/possible-tracks-for-the-future-between-the-state-and-civil-youths <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Possible Tracks for the Future between the State and Civil Youths</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 02/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The relationship between the regime of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi and various generations of youths with civil orientation still represent a crisis for the political system. This crisis does not stem from the ability of these generations to tamper with the state’s stability in the coming stage but because the continuation of this troubled relationship stems from the growing security trend in dealing with these generations. This relationship also reflects the regime’s inability to adopt a strategy that secures reengagement or political integration of these generations. Neglecting the political dimension in this relationship and focusing on the economical one will have an impact on the popularity of the new regime in the coming three years, the possibility that these generations will be incubators that ensure continuity of the new regime and immunize the state against sliding into a new stage of turbulence.</p> <p><strong>Features of the Youths Problem</strong></p> <ol><li>Young generations are the fluid mass that supported the June 30<sup>th</sup> revolution, which the regime may succeed to lure or the Muslim Brotherhood may succeed in sponsoring their demands. Figures of the Central Agency for Mobilization and Statistics show that Egyptian youths of the age group 18-29 years constitute 23.7% of the total population, i.e., 20 million people. If we add to this number the age group of 29-40 years old, this number may include half of Egypt’s population. This means that youths are the largest segment in Egypt’s society, the largest portion of which are located outside the state’s bureaucracy. This in turn means that youths are economically disengaged from the state despite being affected by its economic policies. Therefore, youths susceptibility to oppose the state is high, which is in the best interest of the Muslim Brotherhood, which is trying now to reconcile somehow with civil youths,</li> <li>There is a rapid shift on the Egyptian youths tendencies; the period of four years after the Jan. 25, 2011 revolution has not only produced a revolutionary generation, but generations with special features that went through common experiences, non-homogeneous and represent multiple orientations, as well,</li> </ol><p>The general rule in Egypt is to deal with youths as a burden; whether by the government, various media outlets or political forces in a way that narrowed the available margin for them to take part in building the new system as stipulated in Egypt’s future roadmap. This treatment of youths is evident in the private discourse or a number of common statements such as “the revolutionaries of January were foreign agents”, “received training abroad to destabilize the country”, and what happened on Jan. 25<sup>th</sup> was a “conspiracy” and those who took part in June 30<sup>th</sup> revolution are “youth of the army”, according to the Muslim Brotherhood.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fcc94a6.jpg" width="1920" height="1162" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5839 at http://epc.ae Crisis of Labor Unions in Egypt: Towards a Vision to Rectify the Relationship between the State and Workers http://epc.ae/publication/crisis-of-labor-unions-in-egypt-towards-a-vision-to-rectify-the-relationship-between-the-state-and-workers <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Crisis of Labor Unions in Egypt: Towards a Vision to Rectify the Relationship between the State and Workers</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Egyptian policy-makers face a complicated and a multilateral problem, which has to do with the relationship between the state and the labor force. This problem also involves other parties such as the labor unions, both official and independent, and employers and their various organizations, such as chambers of industry and commerce.</p> <p><strong>Union Organizations in Egypt:</strong></p> <p>The case of unions and the labor movement in Egypt and their relationship with the state has been one of the most sensitive issues since the early 1990s for the following reasons:</p> <ol><li>Cairo’s adoption of the economic reform and structural adjustment programs, of which selling the public sector was one of its basic elements, or the so-called privatization,</li> <li>The trilateral crisis between the labor force, the labor union and the state, took a dangerous turn since 2006 when widespread labor protests started, kept intensifying until Jan. 25, 2011 and continued until today, calling for a number of economic demands,</li> <li>The economic crises in Egypt since 2011,</li> <li>Political instability and lack of security, which led to the closure of a large number of private factories, which in turn led to the deterioration of conditions of the labor movement,</li> <li>Widespread labor resentment, not only among workers in the public sector, but the private sector as well, even the unregulated sector,</li> <li>Failure of the official labor unions in the country (represented by the Egyptian Trade Union Federation, its 23 unions and the 2000 union committees) to play its natural role and mediate between the labor force and employers,</li> <li>The rise of private unions in Egypt: this situation is a growing problem that leads to more political and economic instability if it remains unsolved.</li> </ol><p> </p> <p><strong>Potential Risks of the Current Situation:</strong></p> <p><strong>1.</strong><strong>Protests among the labor movement in Egypt in several sectors</strong>, both private and public, although the textiles sector is the most disgruntled due to the deteriorating conditions among its workers in recent years,</p> <p><strong>2.</strong><strong>The presence of an official union represented by the Egyptian Trade Union Federation and its affiliates</strong>, which is based on monopoly of union representation according to the Trade Unions Law No. 35 of 1976 and its amendments,</p> <p><strong>3.</strong><strong>The tense situation between the Egyptian government and the International Labor Organization (ILO) </strong>due to the latter’s accusations to Cairo of violating the standards of freedom of unions undertaken by Egypt,</p> <p><strong>4.</strong><strong>The latent restrictions in the Labor Law and Union’s Law</strong> that need radical amendments in line with the terms of the 2014 constitution, the ILO standards and the creation of  an investment-friendly environment,</p> <p><strong>5.</strong><strong>The need to provide a certain level of political and social stability</strong> calls for appeasing workers and redefine the relationship among all parties of the production process in a satisfactory way to all, thus boosting productivity rates.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fce25c4.jpg" width="1920" height="1304" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5840 at http://epc.ae Egypt-Sudan Relations: Prospects of a New Strategic Partnership http://epc.ae/publication/egypt-sudan-relations-prospects-of-a-new-strategic-partnership <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt-Sudan Relations: Prospects of a New Strategic Partnership</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Egyptian-Sudanese partnership has been controversial due to the politicization of relations and the contradictory visions of the ruling elites in both countries over the years. Although the two countries enjoy historical relations, Cairo has kept exercising influence over Sudan even after independence in 1956. The Egyptian influence, however, has declined significantly in the 1980s, especially during the rule of al-Sadiq al-Mahdi (1986-1989.)</p> <p><strong>Prospects of a New Strategic Partnership: from a Balance of Power to a Balance of Interests</strong></p> <ol><li>Conditions in Egypt and Sudan and shifts on regional and international landscapes call for a change in policies and adoption of a new perspective for the strategic partnership between the two countries. Therefore, the prevailing vision on the future of the Egyptian-Sudanese relations must go through a significant shift. The new vision must be based on the concepts of independence, equal terms and mutual interests. This means the need to stop employing these ties for the political interests of the ruling elites in Khartoum and Cairo, such as the cases of Halayeb Triangle and the Nile’s water,</li> <li>A need to reevaluate integration experiments, which has the following characteristics, especially during the period 1961-2004:</li> </ol><ul><li>They were imposed by the top political leadership in both countries and did not take into account natural progress to improve bilateral relations. They were always engulfed by an ideal and zealous discourse that settles for historical claims and civilization links between the two countries,</li> <li>There is a mutual suspicion and negative stereotypes in the Sudanese public awareness about the predominance of the Egyptian role and its evident impact on the Sudanese landscape before and after independence,</li> <li>The first integration agreement during the era of Jaafer al-Nimeiry had not produced any executive institutions. The 1982 agreement for political action and economic integration between the two countries, which included water, agricultural and economic projects, was suspended after the fall of al-Nimeiry regime in 1985. The government of al-Mahdi rose to power and announced the brotherhood charter in 1987 as a new political framework. The relations between the two countries, however, have deteriorated during the Islamists rule in Sudan, especially after the failed assassination attempt against former president Hosni Mubarak in 1995,</li> </ul><p>Fears by the ruling regime in Egypt towards the security situation and instability in Sudan are a stumbling block in front of the full implementation of the four freedoms agreement signed by al-Basheer’s regime in 2004 and included the freedom of movement, residence, right to work and own property.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fcb0d3f.jpg" width="1920" height="1216" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5838 at http://epc.ae Public Finance Management in Egypt: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/public-finance-management-in-egypt-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Public Finance Management in Egypt: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Egyptian economy faced grave challenges in the past three years that coincided with political transition and the accompanying social and security hardships. These challenges extended also to the public finance management, which used to suffer from several structural problems before 2011.</p> <p>This paper focuses on analyzing policies that should be adopted by the Egyptian government to maximize opportunities and turn challenges related to public finance into opportunities through which the government can improve the efficiency of the public finance management.</p> <p><strong>First: Elements of Strength in the Current Landscape</strong></p> <p>There are several elements of strength in Egypt’s public finance management sector. This is evident in the following points:</p> <ul><li>The government is trying to complete the project to develop the public finance system in cooperation with the World Bank, the Middle East Regional Technical Assistance Center (METAC) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the EU. As part of the Egyptian government’s efforts to establish a regulatory and legislative foundation to combat administrative and financial corruption, the three parties will help Cairo to develop a strategy for public finance in line with systems and measures applied in major countries of the world,</li> <li>In the early days of 2015, the Egyptian ministry of finance started to lay down a framework for applying the internal audit system in public administration due to its important role in improving the efficiency of public administration, decreasing errors as a result of the weak state regulatory system and improving effectiveness of public expenditures in the administrative system,</li> <li>Two accountancy units in the state administration were chosen as models to apply the internal audit approach. The ministry of finance is currently carrying out an accurate analysis of the existing regulatory system to verify the efficiency of distributing financial controllers in the ministry over administrative units, measure the impact of the automation of public finance management on the financial control system, the role of the financial controller, financial inspection, review the structure of all units concerned with budgets and accounting in the administrative apparatus all over the country, as well as review regulations and laws that govern various tools of financial control to incorporate the internal audit system,</li> <li>A serious dialogue has been launched between the EU and Egypt’s ministry of finance on how to reform public finance management in the country, because the EU is implementing a series of programs to support the budget in sectors of vital interest to the government, such as education, health and transportation. The EU, however, has frozen any money related to support the budget due to the incomplete reforms in the public finance system in Egypt, as well as the problem related to macro-economic stability.</li> </ul><p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <ul><li> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </li> </ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc986f0.jpg" width="1920" height="1406" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5837 at http://epc.ae