Policy Analysis http://epc.ae/publication-type/policy-analysis en Trajectories of Egyptian-Russian Relations after Putin’s Visit to Cairo http://epc.ae/publication/trajectories-of-egyptian-russian-relations-after-putins-visit-to-cairo <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Trajectories of Egyptian-Russian Relations after Putin’s Visit to Cairo</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Visit by the Russian President Vladimir Putin to Egypt in Feb. 2015 comes at a time where the two sides need to cement their ties and show that they have other alternatives other than the West to achieve their goals.</p> <p>Putin’s visit to Cairo is the first of its kind since 10 years, carries symbolic significance and aims to send a message to the US and the West that Egypt has some independence in its foreign relations and has several choices, especially in light of the tense relations between Washington and Cairo since the Moslem Brotherhood was removed from office in July 2013.</p> <p>Russia, on the other hand, faces Western sanctions due to its support for the separates in the Ukraine and economic problems as a result of the decline in oil prices. Putin’s visit to Cairo underscores his efforts to show that the Kremlin still has friends around the world.</p> <p>The visit may also carry a significance that goes beyond what observers think which has to do with building a new network of regional relations and explore opportunities to improve Egyptian-Iranian relations. During the visit, Tehran has sent messages that show interest in supporting stability in Egypt and condemnation for targeting Egyptian forces in Sinai.</p> <p>Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisis faces a number of challenges that require rapprochement with Moscow, notably, economic ones and resumption of Cairo’s ties with world countries.</p> <p>Egypt also faces challenges at the level of national security such as the Renaissance Dam with Ethiopia and terrorist threats at the Eastern and Western borders.</p> <p> </p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fdb7149.jpg" width="1920" height="1338" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5848 at http://epc.ae Investment in Egypt’s Tourism Sector: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/investment-in-egypts-tourism-sector-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investment in Egypt’s Tourism Sector: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Tourism is one of the fundamental pillars of Egypt’s economy. The economic conference, which was held in March 2015, paves the way for developing this sector because Egypt enjoys unique archeological and touristic sites.</p> <p>The paper points to key points of strength in Egypt’s tourism sector which is the second largest source of revenue for the country. It employs more than 12% of Egyptians and contributes 3.2% of the country’s GDP.</p> <p>The paper, then, deals with several challenges facing the tourism sector in Egypt after the Jan. 2011 revolution, notably, the deteriorating security conditions in the country, the decline of foreign investments which constitute 3% only of total investments, while the rest comes from Egyptian-Gulf investments, as well as, the problem of work permits.</p> <p>Finally, the paper introduces three alternative trajectories to maximize opportunities, minimize challenges, in addition, to a number of recommendations to boost investments in Egypt’s tourism.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe7d7b6.jpg" width="1920" height="1147" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5856 at http://epc.ae Investment in Egypt’s Transport Sector: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/investment-in-egypts-transport-sector-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investment in Egypt’s Transport Sector: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The transport sector is one of the pivotal elements of development in Egypt. The advancement of a state is measured by the extent of attention it pays to means of transport. Transport services are closely linked to total development of a state in its broad concept because it is one of the key foundations of the state’s infrastructure. The transport sector is the channel through which requirements of economic, construction and social development flows from areas of production to areas of consumption.</p> <p>Egypt’s transport sector enjoys several points of strength such as e-management in ports, especially Alexandria Port, the shift by Egyptian Port Authority from the role of an operator to the role of a regulator, the EU’s support to Egypt’s transport sector of about €90m.</p> <p>Egypt’s transport sector is currently facing a number of challenges, notably, Law No. 1 for 1998 permitting the private sector to conduct most maritime transport activities, external challenges such the increasing global growth rates and the rising cost of energy, as well as, internal difficulties related to the pace of developing ports to meet requirements of development plans and create new job opportunities for youths.</p> <p>Railways in the country has been suffering from negligence for long despite its extreme importance. It carries 800 million passengers annually and employs 71,000 people. The deteriorating transit system led to the failure of development in many promising areas. Cairo cannot overcome this hurdle without improving the transit system in the country to meet requirements of development.</p> <p>Finally, the paper introduces three alternative trajectories to maximize opportunities, minimize challenges, in addition, to a number of recommendations to overcome hardships in this sector.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe95b3e.jpg" width="1920" height="1179" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5857 at http://epc.ae Investment in Egypt’s Agricultural Sector: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/investment-in-egypts-agricultural-sector-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investment in Egypt’s Agricultural Sector: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 02/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Egypt has adopted policies that establish a friendly environment for investments in agriculture by providing the necessary infrastructure in the newly reclaimed lands, such as roads, services, lines of credit at a reasonable cost and tax exemption for several years. To encourage agricultural investment in Egypt, the government has drawn a map of agricultural areas, arable areas, natural reserves, as well as the location of conventional and unconventional water resources. In 2007, the first step to modernize agriculture was taken by converting it into a sector run according to the free market economy mechanism as part of the economic liberalization program.</p> <p>Points of strength in the landscape of investment in Egypt’s agricultural sector are evident in the following:</p> <ul><li>Legislations were issued as part of implementing the economic reform program in Egypt to attract the private sector. To this end, the government drafted the following laws:</li> </ul><ul><li>Law No. 230 of 1989, which covers all economic activities, including agriculture. The Egyptian General Authority for Investment and Free Zones supervises over the implementation of this law in coordination with other concerned parties,</li> <li>Law No. 143 of 1981, which covers land reclamation, plant and animal production and agricultural product processing. The ministry of agriculture also supervises over the Principal Bank for Development and Agriculture, which carries out central planning for credit and agricultural cooperative financing at the national level. Local and foreign investors are treated on equal footing in terms of benefits stipulated in the investment law.</li> </ul><ul><li>The Egyptian government has launched a project to reclaim 1 million acres in the Western Desert. Cairo will announce the full executive steps of the project after the ministry of agriculture locates the lands, offers 50% of the lands for graduates and small-scale farmers and the other 50% for large-scale investors and concludes the final plans for the proposed three cities, East Owainat, West Minia and al-Moghareh as part of the project, as well as a number of towns,</li> </ul><p>Work has started to establish national infrastructure, provide the necessary irrigation water for areas included in the project in coordination between the ministries of agriculture and irrigation. At the same time, the ministry of housing will provide sketches for models of towns and cities to be built.</p> <p> </p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fd2463a.jpg" width="1920" height="996" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5842 at http://epc.ae Investment in Egypt’s Energy Sector: Opportunities and Risks http://epc.ae/publication/investment-in-egypts-energy-sector-opportunities-and-risks <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investment in Egypt’s Energy Sector: Opportunities and Risks</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 02/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Oil and natural gas are some of the major sources of energy in Egypt and the major drivers of development in the country. Annual consumption in 2006 reached 50.97 ton of oil equivalent (toe), while natural gas constituted 54.9% of the total consumption. As foreign investment declined, in parallel with a decline in foreign exchange reserves by half over the last three years, importing fuel laid a burden on the state’s budget. Renewable energy projects to generate electricity contribute 1% only of the total energy produced in Egypt, while hydroelectricity constitute 9% only.</p> <p><strong>Points of strength in Egypt’s energy sector</strong></p> <ul><li>Oil and natural gas is an important value added sector to Egypt’s economy; it has contributed about 17.5% of GDP in 2012/2013, while investments in this sector reached almost 26% of total investments in the same period. This makes it the dark horse leading the economic growth in the country,</li> <li>Foreign companies are a major player in Egypt’s oil and natural gas industry. BP, Eni, Apache and Shell are the major players, as well as medium and small firms taking part in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas. Most of the production by foreign companies is consumed in the local Egyptian market to meet the growing demand for fuel,</li> <li>The government alone cannot develop this sector due to the lack of the necessary funds. Therefore, Cairo must seek help from the private sector to invest in the electricity sector, which was monopolized by the government for years,</li> <li>The Egyptian government adopted a draft law in Feb. 2015 to block appeals against contracts signed directly between the government and investors and bids awarded to foreign firms. This measure aims to create the proper investment environment and assure investors,</li> <li>It is expected that investments in the renewable energy sector will reach $4billion over the coming two years,</li> <li>Several international institutions support the Egyptian energy sector, such as the EU, which cooperates with Cairo through the Energy Sector Policy Support Program. It is a program based on assisting the budget of the energy sector and aims to achieve the objectives of the national energy strategy</li> </ul><p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <ul><li> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </li> </ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fd069d5.jpg" width="1920" height="1280" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5841 at http://epc.ae Public Finance Management in Egypt: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/public-finance-management-in-egypt-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Public Finance Management in Egypt: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Egyptian economy faced grave challenges in the past three years that coincided with political transition and the accompanying social and security hardships. These challenges extended also to the public finance management, which used to suffer from several structural problems before 2011.</p> <p>This paper focuses on analyzing policies that should be adopted by the Egyptian government to maximize opportunities and turn challenges related to public finance into opportunities through which the government can improve the efficiency of the public finance management.</p> <p><strong>First: Elements of Strength in the Current Landscape</strong></p> <p>There are several elements of strength in Egypt’s public finance management sector. This is evident in the following points:</p> <ul><li>The government is trying to complete the project to develop the public finance system in cooperation with the World Bank, the Middle East Regional Technical Assistance Center (METAC) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the EU. As part of the Egyptian government’s efforts to establish a regulatory and legislative foundation to combat administrative and financial corruption, the three parties will help Cairo to develop a strategy for public finance in line with systems and measures applied in major countries of the world,</li> <li>In the early days of 2015, the Egyptian ministry of finance started to lay down a framework for applying the internal audit system in public administration due to its important role in improving the efficiency of public administration, decreasing errors as a result of the weak state regulatory system and improving effectiveness of public expenditures in the administrative system,</li> <li>Two accountancy units in the state administration were chosen as models to apply the internal audit approach. The ministry of finance is currently carrying out an accurate analysis of the existing regulatory system to verify the efficiency of distributing financial controllers in the ministry over administrative units, measure the impact of the automation of public finance management on the financial control system, the role of the financial controller, financial inspection, review the structure of all units concerned with budgets and accounting in the administrative apparatus all over the country, as well as review regulations and laws that govern various tools of financial control to incorporate the internal audit system,</li> <li>A serious dialogue has been launched between the EU and Egypt’s ministry of finance on how to reform public finance management in the country, because the EU is implementing a series of programs to support the budget in sectors of vital interest to the government, such as education, health and transportation. The EU, however, has frozen any money related to support the budget due to the incomplete reforms in the public finance system in Egypt, as well as the problem related to macro-economic stability.</li> </ul><p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <ul><li> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </li> </ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc986f0.jpg" width="1920" height="1406" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5837 at http://epc.ae Egypt’s Incorporation in EU’s Agricultural Policies: Cost and Reward http://epc.ae/publication/egypts-incorporation-in-eus-agricultural-policies-cost-and-reward <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt’s Incorporation in EU’s Agricultural Policies: Cost and Reward</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The European Union is the largest trade partner with Egypt. Egypt’s volume of trade with the EU stands at 42% of the country’s total external trade, while the EU volume of trade with Egypt is about 0.004 of the total external trade of EU members. The share of Egypt’s agriculture sector in the country’s GDP reached EGP11.3billion, of which EGP21.1million only were from the public sector. In 2009/2010, the agricultural sector participated with 13.2% of the countries EGP837.8billion GDP. Agriculture in the private sector participates with about 20.9% of the total production of the whole sector. The share of the agricultural sector in exports amounts to 18.3%; plants production 10.6% and livestock, poultry and fisheries 7.7%. The European agricultural policy is based on an important principle, which says that achieving comprehensive rural development requires implementation of a series of economic, social and political balanced measures. To implement these measures, the current situation must be evaluated to pinpoint existing challenges. These measures vary according to region and needs. Ensuring rural development is based on sustainability of natural resources and institutions, the active participation of people in rural areas, participation of civil society in decision-making and decentralization in various jobs at all levels of the regional hierarchy. The Europeans say that rural development is stumbling due to the lack of the institutional and legislative framework, the absent role of agricultural cooperatives, fragmentation of landholding, lack of crop rotation and problems related to agricultural input such as seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. The paper focuses on policies, which Egypt should adopt to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of incorporation in European agricultural policies. First: Egypt’s Agricultural Policy in the Current Political Situation In 2003, the EU announced the adoption of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP), which complements the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). ENP includes bilateral work plans between the EU and neighboring countries, including Egypt, covering several sectors including agriculture and cooperation to implement the following agricultural reforms in line with article 50 of the EPA: - Define and choose necessary methods to provide structural, institutional, legal and administrative support to facilitate access to export markets by trying to converge technical laws, especially in terms of international specifications for agricultural goods and processed agricultural products; - Define and choose necessary methods for rural development, including quality of products, food safety, organic products and geographical indicators in the framework of domestic legislations. This will boost trade and efficient use of water; - Define and choose necessary methods to encourage private investment; - Exchange of expertise to bolster administrative aspects related to agricultural holdings; - Bolster the role of agricultural research centers to improve productivity, food safety and crops quality; - Improve cooperation with European research centers, especially on genetic engineering and biotechnology; - Encourage the use of modern technology in agricultural various stages of production; - Share information on agricultural policies and the exchange of experts and expertise; - The work plan on Phytosanitary aims to add the element of food safety for Egyptian and European consumers, through reforms and improvement regarding health and Phytosanitary.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc65756.jpg" width="1920" height="1283" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5835 at http://epc.ae Egypt Economic Development Conference: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/egypt-economic-development-conference-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt Economic Development Conference: Opportunities and Challenges </span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 01/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Egypt will host the Egypt Economic Development Conference in Sharm El Sheikh on March 13-15, 2015, the Egyptian government announced. The conference will cover three themes for economic reform: First, reduction of budget deficit and fiscal discipline, reform of tax system and reduce expenditures, boost state revenues and exploit natural resources in the country. Second attract direct investments, while the third theme covers bridging the finance gap and boost balance of payments. The Egyptian government aims for sustainable real growth and ultimately improve the social welfare of the Egyptian people. Egypt’s Finance Minister said the projects to be introduced during the conference are public and will be implemented through partnership with the private sector with the support of international expertise houses. These projects include river transportation projects, development of Safaga port and establish industrial and service projects around the port. The paper is divided into five parts: • Points of strength in the current landscape; • The most important challenges facing this conference; • The most important opportunities provided by the conference; • The most important possible scenarios about holding the conference; • Recommendations to minimize risks and maximize opportunities. First: Points of Strength in the Current Landscape: The following are some of the points of strength in the run up for the conference next March: • Egypt hosts the first professional international event since Jan. 25, 2011 revolution. This well-prepared economic conference is one of the best indicators to show the world that Egypt’s economy is recovering; • Last year, Egypt hosted the Egyptian-Gulf Investment Forum attended by almost 500 Gulf, Egyptian and foreign businessmen and investors to restore investors’ confidence in Egypt’s economy. In the forum, Cairo presented 66 projects all over the country valued at more than $7billion. • The United Arab Emirates (UAE) introduced a plan to help Egypt through a joint venture between US firms and a French bank to design an economic plan for the country where Abu Dhabi pays for the cost of the studies. This plan is a huge economic opportunity for Cairo to put creative solutions for the country’s hardships. The projects will have a definite timetable, which provides decision-makers with a clear vision. This will also be a recognition of Egypt’s economic reforms; hence, improves its stand with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and helps to improve the country’s credit rating. • Kuwaiti Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs said his country would participate actively in this economic conference. He reiterated that Kuwait is one of the biggest investors in Egypt and intends to boost these investments.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc48a3c.jpg" width="1920" height="1456" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5834 at http://epc.ae Egyptian-EU Economic Cooperation: Opportunities and Risks http://epc.ae/publication/egyptian-eu-economic-cooperation-opportunities-and-risks <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egyptian-EU Economic Cooperation: Opportunities and Risks</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The EU, with 27 member-states, is the third largest economy in the world. The EU has 16% of the world population with a GDP of about €10957.9 billion, which surpasses the US GDP. The EU is also is the largest donor of official development assistance to developing countries. The EU and Egypt signed an Association Agreement in 2001 that entered into force on June 1, 2004 and incorporates cooperation in trade, economy, education and industry. Cairo is also engaged in the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) by adopting the action plan of the neighborhood policy in April 2007.</p> <p>The following are evidence of the strong EU-Egyptian economic cooperation:</p> <ul><li>EU grants to Egypt reached €2.296 billion in the period 1996-2013,</li> <li>The financial and economic cooperation have accomplished several achievements in the field of development by supporting the budget. This shows an increasing confidence in the Egyptian government’s ability to carry out development in all sectors of the economy. It is worth noting that the mechanism to support the budget was linked to standards and conditions, which sometimes were tough and rigid but have been eased upon Cairo’s request,</li> <li>The EU is the largest trading partner with Egypt; Egyptian exports to the EU increased by 13.1%, whereas EU’s exports to Egypt increased by 22.2% in the same period,</li> <li>In June 2008, the two sides concluded trade negotiations on agricultural goods, processed agricultural goods, and fish and fish products. The EU and Egypt started bilateral talks early 2008 on liberalizing services and institutions, while negotiations continued the same year regarding mechanisms to settle disputes,</li> <li>As part of the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), the EU has introduced the Cross Border Cooperation to support sustainable development and help to bridge the gap in the standard of living on both sides of the Mediterranean. The European Commission (EC) allocated €182 million for the period 2007-2013 to tackle common challenges identified jointly and to exploit the untapped growth potential in countries with common land or maritime borders with EU countries, while enhancing the cooperation process for the purpose of the overall harmonious development. The EC finances 90% of the cost of any project, while participant countries provide the remaining 10% of any project.</li> <li>In 2014, the EU and Egypt started consultations on the multi-year financial program for the period 2016-2020. The EU showed readiness to support the new Egyptian government program, priorities and approaches. The program might focus on a limited number of priorities that can receive EU support and contribute to fulfilling the targets of the current government, such as improving the standard of living, support basic infrastructure and create new jobs. Cooperation is expected between the two sides based on the third chapter of the Barcelona Declaration,</li> <li>The overall progress in implementing the action plan is limited, but encouraging, with a strong commitment towards social and economic reforms and to a less degree towards political reform.</li> </ul><p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc7f768.jpg" width="1920" height="1324" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Mon, 01 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5836 at http://epc.ae Limits of the Presidential Team’s Role in al-Sisi’s Era http://epc.ae/publication/limits-of-the-presidential-teams-role-in-al-sisis-era <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Limits of the Presidential Team’s Role in al-Sisi’s Era</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 09/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The analysis raises questions about reasons behind the delay of President al-Sisi’s announcement of his presidential team and the disappearance of most aides, who have worked in the president’s campaign, from the scene. The analysis makes a comparison with the experience of former presidents, especially Mohammad Morsi and Adly Mansour. The paper points out that this experience has left a negative impact on al-Sisi because it causes tension between the presidency and the government, losing control over decision-making, internal competition among advisors, abuse of authority, lack of professionalism, while most advisors in Morsi’s era had jumped ship. The paper analyzes the establishment and jurisdiction of Egypt’s Consultative Council of Scholars and Experts, reiterating the consultative and voluntary nature of the Council. The paper also points out to the likelihood of some tracks that could be taken by President al-Sisi.</p> <p> </p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19f9ca2d3.jpg" width="1920" height="1308" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Mon, 01 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5809 at http://epc.ae