Egypt http://epc.ae/research-unit/egypt en Egypt: Current Reality and Foreseeing Future Transitions http://epc.ae/publication/egypt-current-reality-and-foreseeing-future-transitions <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt: Current Reality and Foreseeing Future Transitions</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 05/10/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since the revolution of Jan. 25, 2011, Egypt has been suffering from an unprecedented political turmoil in its modern history. Egypt’s political system is currently at a pivotal juncture and faces three major challenges: a decline in the political system’s competence to respond to structural challenges facing the Egyptian state and society; the degradation of the system’s foundations of legitimacy and its vague identity and political orientation and the growing regional and international fluidity.<br /> This paper aims to deconstruct the current political, economic and social reality in Egypt in order to define the elements of the crisis faced by the process of public policy making in the country. To this end, the paper will focus on three major themes: <br /> First, the outcomes of the rapid process of political change in Egypt since the revolutionary movement of Jan. 25, 2011, <br /> Second, discuss elements of the economic crisis in the country and conditions to overcome this crisis,<br /> Third, deal with the orientations of Egypt’s foreign policy and limitations of the role Cairo can play in various regional circles under the current conditions, with a focus on the dynamics of its relations with GCC countries</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19feb3551.jpg" width="373" height="324" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-papers" hreflang="en">Policy Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/11" hreflang="en">Book</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 10 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5858 at http://epc.ae Egypt-US Relations: Dynamics and Prospects http://epc.ae/publication/egypt-us-relations-dynamics-and-prospects <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt-US Relations: Dynamics and Prospects</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 05/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>US President Barack Obama informed Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Mar. 2015 of his administration’s decision to lift ban on providing Egypt with US military assistance and resume arrangements for the sale of F-16 fighter jets. The US decision is a turning point in the tense relationship between Obama’s administration and el-Sisi’s regime since ousting President Mohammad Morsi from office. This tension has coincided with an Egyptian-Russian rapprochement since July 3, 2013. Observers say that this rapprochement comes at the expense of what has always been described as strategic ties between Cairo and Washington despite efforts by senior Egyptian officials to refute this claim.</p> <p>Therefore, there is a need to identify the reality of these relations now by putting recent developments within the context of the mainstream pattern of running relations between the two countries. The paper says that this pattern is shifting and lacks an institutionalized character which distinguishes firm alliances. Relations between Cairo and Washington are adapted according to the changing realities through the role played by the ruling elites in both countries to adjust ties based on the strategic considerations of both countries’ interests.</p> <p>Then, the paper reviews the most important current issues related to Egyptian-US ties such as democracy and human rights, intertwined ties between Israel’s security and counterterrorism, the ongoing regional conflicts in Syria, Libya and Yemen and the nuclear issue.</p> <p>Finally, the paper introduces three possible scenarios for Egyptian-US ties in the future based on a number of criteria such as Washington’s stance on recent developments in Egypt, military cooperation, the Israeli security dilemma and war on terrorism.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe645e9.jpg" width="1920" height="1281" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5855 at http://epc.ae Possible Trajectories for Egyptian-Turkish Relations http://epc.ae/publication/possible-trajectories-for-egyptian-turkish-relations <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Possible Trajectories for Egyptian-Turkish Relations</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 05/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Shifts in the region point out that the ongoing tension between Egypt and Turkey does not serve the interests of both countries. In addition, this tension does not serve the interests of Arab Gulf States which have become an influential actor in the region, especially Saudi Arabia which seeks to cement its leadership of the axis against Iran since King Salman bin Abdel Aziz assumed office. This situation calls for reevaluation of the future of relations between Cairo and Ankara, especially, in light of recent reports about a Saudi initiative to mend fences between the two countries.</p> <p>In this context, the paper discusses the crisis in the Egyptian-Turkish ties, both in terms of the continuing political tension between the two sides as a result of MB issue or the chilly economic ties or security concerns by Cairo regarding Ankara’s ties with some terrorist organizations.</p> <p>In addition, the paper analyzes points of weakness and strength for Turkey and Egypt that affect their ability to manage this crisis, both in terms of the size of the popular support enjoyed by each country’s policies towards the other or the extent of regional pressure on each country. The paper also provides an assessment for opportunities and risks that may come out if the crisis continues both in terms of the regional role for each country or the economic interests of both.</p> <p>The paper draws three possible scenarios for the future of Egyptian-Turkish ties which are affected by two main variables: regional pressure on both sides, especially Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States and domestic pressure on President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Turkey to backtrack on his policies.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe4baad.jpg" width="1920" height="1160" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5854 at http://epc.ae The Muslim Brotherhood and Crises after July 3rd http://epc.ae/publication/the-muslim-brotherhood-and-crises-after-july-3rd <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Muslim Brotherhood and Crises after July 3rd </span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 04/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Deposing MB from office in Egypt after July 3, 2013 has been reflected on the regime’s structure such as causing internal confusion. In turn, this confusion had an impact on public performance and the nature of challenges facing MB’s political future. These challenges can summarized in three themes: thought, organization and performance.</p> <p>As for the <strong>crisis of thought</strong>, MB has been known for reconciling mainstream Islamic ideas. Regimes’ practices against the movement caused changes on its intellectual trajectory in a way that led the movement to fall hostage to two contradictory ideas: the Qotb idea and the Salafist one. Deposing MB from power has fueled these two ideas that dominated the movement’s march. On the other hand, the Salafist discourse, which is widespread in the movement, represents a prominent feature in MB’s crises and regression in its intellectual aspect. The use of Salafist thinking was reflected in MB’s assertion that it has moved to preserve Islam, while the movement sought to promote this discourse to attract more of the fluid Muslim masses.</p> <p>As for the <strong>organizational crisis</strong>, toppling the movement has revealed some features of the crisis faced by MB. This crisis was a reflection of a series of crises, notably, centrality of the organization in the movement’s conscious and the relationship between generations within the movement. Avoiding clash with the regime was a priority in previous stages to preserve the structure of the growing organization. But after breaking up the sit ins at al-Nahda and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabaa_al-Adawiya_Square" title="Rabaa al-Adawiya Square">Rabi’a al-Adawiya Square</a>s, MB decided to continue escalation to confront the new regime. This decision was motivated by keenness to protect the psychological cohesion of MB’s members after the two incidents to avoid any organizational confusion, protests against leadership or calls for holding those who caused MB any human or symbolic losses responsible.</p> <p>As for the <strong>crisis of performance</strong>, we see that the political stand towards MB has pushed it to stop the logic of politics and call in favor for the logic of revolution and declaration of mobilization against the new regime. MB has also changed its discourse to underscore that it is revolutionary out of desire for rapprochement with the revolutionary forces that refuse shifts on the political landscape, as well as, preserve cohesion within the movement. But this has not materialized due to the lack of any serious steps on the ground.</p> <p>Finally, the paper points out that MB’s crises is likely to continue, as well as, the possibility of shifts on its positions as long as there is no agreement among all political factions about a political settlement for the crisis in Egypt.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe4428a.jpg" width="1920" height="1189" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/background-papers" hreflang="en">Background Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5853 at http://epc.ae The Political Future of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt: Possibilities of Safe Integration http://epc.ae/publication/the-political-future-of-the-muslim-brotherhood-in-egypt-possibilities-of-safe-integration <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Political Future of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt: Possibilities of Safe Integration</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 04/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Developments that followed the election of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi point out that reconciliation with the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) has become a choice imposed by reality. This reconciliation, however, requires vigilance by both President el-Sisi’s regime and states supporting Egypt now due to the political consequences of such choice on the regime’s legitimacy.</p> <p>There are two different positions regarding this choice: some prefer confrontation until MB is completely weak while realists believe that real stability requires reconciliation with MB due to the following factors: a key segment of MB youth is resorting to violence out of the state’s control, the disintegration of June 30<sup>th</sup> coalition, shift in tendencies of the ruling Saudi elite who adopt a reconciliatory stand towards MB and the continuation of international pressure on Egypt to reach reconciliation with the movement.</p> <p>In this context, the paper analyzes policies adopted by the regime that tip the balance of power with MB in favor of the regime. At the same time, these policies allow the regime to dictate certain terms for this reconciliation, and choose who might represent the movement. The paper also analyzes the growing organizational weakness of MB, disintegration of the movement as a central organization, especially, after scores of MB leaders were arrested or fled the country.</p> <p>The paper defines the following four motivations for the choice of reconciliation: the low ceiling of demands by MB, the high cost for the government if it chooses the Salafist alternative, MB continues to have the social and economic networks which still represent a latent element of power, as well as, regional and international pressure on Cairo to achieve reconciliation.</p> <p>The paper also attempts to foresee possible scenarios for MB’s political future in Egypt which can be identified based on positive or negative developments that might happen on a number of variables and criteria: the relationship among authority institutions, coherence or contradiction among authority factions, MB’s ability to penetrate the civil society, regional and international pressure on the regime and the ability of the government and forces of democracy to develop the network of social and economic services in face of MB’s network, especially in poor rural areas.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe11b20.jpg" width="1920" height="1290" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5851 at http://epc.ae Trajectories of Egyptian-Russian Relations after Putin’s Visit to Cairo http://epc.ae/publication/trajectories-of-egyptian-russian-relations-after-putins-visit-to-cairo <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Trajectories of Egyptian-Russian Relations after Putin’s Visit to Cairo</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Visit by the Russian President Vladimir Putin to Egypt in Feb. 2015 comes at a time where the two sides need to cement their ties and show that they have other alternatives other than the West to achieve their goals.</p> <p>Putin’s visit to Cairo is the first of its kind since 10 years, carries symbolic significance and aims to send a message to the US and the West that Egypt has some independence in its foreign relations and has several choices, especially in light of the tense relations between Washington and Cairo since the Moslem Brotherhood was removed from office in July 2013.</p> <p>Russia, on the other hand, faces Western sanctions due to its support for the separates in the Ukraine and economic problems as a result of the decline in oil prices. Putin’s visit to Cairo underscores his efforts to show that the Kremlin still has friends around the world.</p> <p>The visit may also carry a significance that goes beyond what observers think which has to do with building a new network of regional relations and explore opportunities to improve Egyptian-Iranian relations. During the visit, Tehran has sent messages that show interest in supporting stability in Egypt and condemnation for targeting Egyptian forces in Sinai.</p> <p>Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisis faces a number of challenges that require rapprochement with Moscow, notably, economic ones and resumption of Cairo’s ties with world countries.</p> <p>Egypt also faces challenges at the level of national security such as the Renaissance Dam with Ethiopia and terrorist threats at the Eastern and Western borders.</p> <p> </p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fdb7149.jpg" width="1920" height="1338" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5848 at http://epc.ae Egypt’s Role in the Yemeni Crisis: Limits and Prospects http://epc.ae/publication/egypts-role-in-the-yemeni-crisis-limits-and-prospects <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egypt’s Role in the Yemeni Crisis: Limits and Prospects </span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition against the Houthi militias allied with forces loyal to former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has started just ahead of the Arab summit in Sharm al-Sheikh. This timing has raised questions about its significance regarding the limits of Cairo’s regional role and issues on which Egypt and Saudi Arabia agree and disagree, especially the Yemeni issue. Contrary to what Egypt’s media outlets tried to suggest at the beginning of Operation “Decisive Storm” about a big Egyptian role in this operation, indicators point to a limited role by Cairo.</p> <p>The paper reviews differences between the Egyptian and Saudi positions on conducting the war in Yemen which made Cairo’s role seem limited. The paper points to the Saudi behavior during the Arab summit, saying that Riyadh did not want Arab rupture to affect the military operations in Yemen, tried to draft a framework for the potential role which the joint Arab force can play if it is formed and open the door for non-Arab partners to take part in the proposed force. Riyadh wants to expand the coalition’s umbrella (militarily or politically) to include other heavy weight Sunni parties in the region, Pakistan and Turkey in particular, as well as, a Saudi desire to be a regional leader.</p> <p>The paper also attempts to foresee possible scenarios for the development of Cairo’s role in the Yemeni conflict according to positive or negative developments on a number of variables and criteria, notably, putting boots on the ground, activation of the joint Arab force, consent by regional powers for the use of land forces, settling the struggle for regional leadership, an expansion of the regional war and an internal agreement in Egypt.</p> <p>Based on these criteria, the paper introduces four possible scenarios.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe29dd3.jpg" width="1920" height="1280" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5852 at http://epc.ae Egyptian-Russian Rapprochement and its Potential Regional Implications http://epc.ae/publication/egyptian-russian-rapprochement-and-its-potential-regional-implications <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egyptian-Russian Rapprochement and its Potential Regional Implications</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Egyptian-Russian relations are improving steadily after June 30 in a way that makes them one of the main controversial issues regarding the present and future of Cairo’s foreign policy, especially, after President Vladimir Putin’s visit to Cairo in Feb. 2015, which received wide political and media attention.</p> <p>The improving ties between the two countries after more than a year and a half of deposing President Mohammad Morsi from office indicate that these relations have an impetus. This impetus makes talking about a qualitative shift on these ties towards more cooperation something that deserves study and analysis to define limits of this shift, foresee its potential ends and implications on the regional situation in the Middle East.</p> <p>The paper deals with the steady Egyptian-Russian rapprochement since July 3, 2013 and its potential implications on the future of the regional situation. The paper is divided into two main themes: the first one deals with the significance of this rapprochement by focusing on domestic issues in both countries, as well as, regional and international issues. The first theme reviews four fundamental points: first, regional and international balances behind this rapprochement and how it can affect these balances. Second, counter-terrorism policies and the different regional and international stands on some of the details of these policies and positions towards some parties targeted in this war. Third, the economic crises faced by the Egyptian and Russian regimes and the potential consequences of some measures taken regarding cooperation between the two sides on this issue, notably, the use of the national currency, the Egyptian Pound and the Russian Ruble, in trade exchange instead of the US Dollar. Fourth, the question of legitimacy of both regimes and how this drives both regimes to adopt certain policies to boost their popular legitimacy.</p> <p>The second theme of this paper deals with possible scenarios for the development of Egyptian-Russian ties in the future in light of the contexts and issue reviewd in the first theme.</p> <p>The paper defines three criteria on which the future of Cairo’s policy towards rapprochement with Russia depends. First, the relationship among elements of power in Egypt. Second, the relationship between el-Sisi’s regime and Washington. Third, the relationship between el-Sisi’s regime and Arab Gulf States. On these bases, the paper drafts three possible scenarios for the development of Egyptian-Russian ties.                            </p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fdeda73.jpg" width="1920" height="1278" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5850 at http://epc.ae Investment in Egypt’s Tourism Sector: Opportunities and Challenges http://epc.ae/publication/investment-in-egypts-tourism-sector-opportunities-and-challenges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investment in Egypt’s Tourism Sector: Opportunities and Challenges</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Tourism is one of the fundamental pillars of Egypt’s economy. The economic conference, which was held in March 2015, paves the way for developing this sector because Egypt enjoys unique archeological and touristic sites.</p> <p>The paper points to key points of strength in Egypt’s tourism sector which is the second largest source of revenue for the country. It employs more than 12% of Egyptians and contributes 3.2% of the country’s GDP.</p> <p>The paper, then, deals with several challenges facing the tourism sector in Egypt after the Jan. 2011 revolution, notably, the deteriorating security conditions in the country, the decline of foreign investments which constitute 3% only of total investments, while the rest comes from Egyptian-Gulf investments, as well as, the problem of work permits.</p> <p>Finally, the paper introduces three alternative trajectories to maximize opportunities, minimize challenges, in addition, to a number of recommendations to boost investments in Egypt’s tourism.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fe7d7b6.jpg" width="1920" height="1147" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/policy-analysis" hreflang="en">Policy Analysis</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5856 at http://epc.ae Egyptian Moves towards the Syrian Crisis: Significance and Implications http://epc.ae/publication/egyptian-moves-towards-the-syrian-crisis-significance-and-implications <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Egyptian Moves towards the Syrian Crisis: Significance and Implications</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 03/01/2015 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Egypt looks at Syria as the basic center of gravity in Natural Syria (Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon), a pillar in the Arab regional order. Cairo also believes that Stability in Syria is key for the interest of the region. The Syrian revolution in Mar. 2011 coincided with the consolidation of the principle of humanitarian interference in Libya, the interference of many international parties in Syria and moving towards internationalization, on one hand, and militarization on the other. The traditional Egyptian vision towards the Syrian crisis rejects foreign interference and calls for a solution through the national and Arab framework.</p> <p>In its first half, the paper focuses on the determinants of Cairo’s policy towards Syria which are divided into political, strategic and security determinants. All of these determinants make Egypt prefer a political solution and reject foreign intervention in the Syrian crisis.</p> <p>The second part of the paper focuses on the significance and implications of Egypt’s efforts towards the Syrian crisis. The third part presents three potential scenarios for the evolvement of Cairo’s role towards the escalating events in Syria.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fd86272.jpg" width="1920" height="1254" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/position-papers" hreflang="en">Position Papers</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/egypt" hreflang="en">Egypt</a></div> Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5846 at http://epc.ae