Translations http://epc.ae/publication-type/translation en The US between al-Qaeda and the Islamic State: Is it Possible that Washington Will Back al-Qaeda http://epc.ae/publication/the-us-between-al-qaeda-and-the-islamic-state-is-it-possible-that-washington-will-back-al-qaeda <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The US between al-Qaeda and the Islamic State: Is it Possible that Washington Will Back al-Qaeda</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Saudi ASharq al-Awsat newspaper last month published a supplement entitled the Entanglements of Terror. In it, Saudi researchers and others try to sketch out the characteristics of the Islamist terror organizations and the phenomenon of the so-called modern Islamist terrorism in the region. The leader of the Islamic State (IS), Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, seeks to establish camps around the Middle East and the whole world. His main target is Arab regimes and states. It is clear that expansion in Iraq and Syria will be accompanied by terrorist activities in other Arab countries to enlist more supporters for al-Baghdadi to establish movements. Analyses show that the difference in strategies between IS and al-Qaeda is that Western countries are not a top priority for IS, at least for now. It seems that differences between these terrorist organizations are ideological. For instance, the edict by Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, the spiritual mentor of Jordan’s Salafist movement, in which he has forbidden Islamist organizations from pledging allegiance to IS. He has sent a cable to Islamist groups fighting in Syria and warned them against killing Muslims. Based on this dispute, one wonders about a term in use now, “moderate rebel groups”, which receive military support by the American administration. In the future, Washington might consider offshoots of al-Qaeda as moderate groups compared to IS. Source:By Zvi Bar'el</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc108de.jpg" width="1920" height="1280" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Mon, 01 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5831 at http://epc.ae Israeli Think Tanks’ Assessments of Arab Gulf States’ Military Capabilities and Map of Balances in Light of a Shifting Strategic http://epc.ae/publication/israeli-think-tanks-assessments-of-arab-gulf-states-military-capabilities-and-map-of-balances-in-light-of-a-shifting-strategic <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Israeli Think Tanks’ Assessments of Arab Gulf States’ Military Capabilities and Map of Balances in Light of a Shifting Strategic</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Currently, there is an unprecedented arms race by countries in the Arabian Gulf, mainly motivated by Iran’s nuclear project and Arab Gulf States might turn into frontline states in any future war with Iran. These countries have found themselves obliged to improve their traditional military capabilities, which have improved tangibly in areas such as defense capabilities and carrying out exercises to stage an attack as far as Iranian territories. Furthermore, Arab Gulf States are a major part in the Israeli security doctrine because they form the third layer in the security theory of the Israeli security and strategic concept behind the Palestinian territories and Arab frontline states. Tel Aviv views common concerns by Arab Gulf States towards the Iranian threat as something that might lead to an undeclared alliance in light of the common interests, according to the expert on Gulf and Arab affairs Zvi Bar’el. Israeli think tanks reiterate that the strategic significance of Arab Gulf States led to a growing international interest in their security after the eruption of the Islamic revolution in Iran, a series of crises in energy supplies, regional wars, foreign interference in the region, the growing activities of opposition and terrorist groups and disputes among countries of the region. All of these reasons led to constant chaos and called on GCC states to be well prepared for any future scenarios. Source: The Institute for National Security Studies and Israeli Think Tanks</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fc2892c.jpg" width="1920" height="1281" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Mon, 01 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5832 at http://epc.ae The Interim Agreement: from a Historical Mistake to the Alternative of Choice http://epc.ae/publication/the-interim-agreement-from-a-historical-mistake-to-the-alternative-of-choice <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Interim Agreement: from a Historical Mistake to the Alternative of Choice</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 11/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The scenario of postponing the target date for concluding a final agreement on the Iranian nuclear program between Iran and the P5+1 until July 1, 2015, is good for Israel. It gives Israel a seven-month period to be prepared in case the negotiations crumble or lead to a “bad agreement”. Despite the strong desire of both sides to reach an agreement, the gaps between them were clearly too large to be bridged. Underlying the failure to reach an agreement is the skepticism of the Western powers regarding Iran’s claim that it has abandoned its strategic goal of attaining military nuclear capability. This distrust of Iran has prevented the formulation of a detailed agreement that would eliminate any possibility of an Iranian breakout to the bomb. Israeli political circles insist that it has no direct representation in the talks; still, it has a duty to keep working with the American administration and reach understandings with it regarding the “bad agreement” or an agreement that it can coexist with. Similar distrust of the West prevails among the conservatives in Iran, headed by Supreme Leader Khamenei, who fear that an agreement blocking Iran’s path to a nuclear military option is a slippery slope, implying surrender to the West and jeopardizing the regime’s future. The Iranians wish to retain capabilities that will enable them, at a time of their choice, to develop a nuclear bomb at short notice. In addition, in order to boost the Iranian economy, Tehran demand the immediate removal of the Western-imposed sanctions. The world powers, however, want to ensure that the agreement will block Iran’s path to nuclear weapons on the uranium, plutonium, and weapons development tracks. Senior administration officials emphasize their duty to weigh the alternative scenarios to failure in the talks, and speak of the possibility of Iran charging forward to obtain nuclear military capability even if no agreement is formulated, the risk of a covert Iranian breakthrough to a bomb, and the risk of an all-out war. At the same time, the decision to extend the talks indicates that the United States also has a red line separating a “reasonable agreement” from a “bad agreement.” President Obama does not want to leave a legacy of a nuclear-armed Iran and a nuclear arms race in the Middle East led by Saudi Arabia, some Arab Gulf States, Egypt, and Turkey. Furthermore, the American President must take into consideration a new Republican Congress that is expected to oppose a “bad agreement.” Source:By Amos Yadlin</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fbec02c.jpg" width="1920" height="1126" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Sat, 01 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5830 at http://epc.ae The Raging Middle East is a Chance for Israel to Forge Alliances http://epc.ae/publication/the-raging-middle-east-is-a-chance-for-israel-to-forge-alliances <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Raging Middle East is a Chance for Israel to Forge Alliances</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 10/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Experts and politicians affirm that the Middle East is raging. They agree that it is not easy to cover all raging issues in the region now. Talking about a partial list of regional events will include the civil wars in Syria and Libya, the disintegration of Iraq, the rise of IS, the threat against stability in Egypt and Tunisia, Hezbollah in Lebanon, the Iranian nuclear threat and the threat of al-Qaeda and its offshoots. Amidst this raging environment, we must not forget the Israeli-Palestinian struggle, fear from Hamas and a possible Palestinian uprising in the occupied territories. It is evident that the current turmoil in the Middle East has provided Israel with the proper chance to make change and push its initiatives forward. Benjamin Netanyahu himself acknowledges that what has changed is that some of the countries in the region no longer see Israel as an enemy; instead, a potential ally in the struggle against common threats in the region. Despite the importance of this acknowledgment, it must be accompanied by a proper policy.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19faca501.jpg" width="1920" height="1280" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Wed, 01 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5819 at http://epc.ae Can Israel Play a Regional Role? http://epc.ae/publication/can-israel-play-a-regional-role <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Can Israel Play a Regional Role?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 10/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We can say that Israel today is facing a unique opportunity as a result of regional events. Wasting a chance that provides Israel with common interests in the region cannot be forgiven. There are a series of steps within Israel’s reach that enable it to play a regional role to establish its position for generations to come. The indifference by Israeli decision-makers to exploit available opportunities in the region is hard to understand. The crumbling colonial borders in Iraq and Syria and the possibility of establishing a Kurdish state provides Israel with a real opportunity to cooperate with moderate Arab states in facing extreme organizations because Israel has a security and economic power which it can employ to serve regional security. On the other hand, the growing threats by radical Islam in the Middle East have forced most Arab countries to look for stability. The resolve of moderate Arab states has made a bulwark against the extreme religious threat. These countries also realize the need to confront religious violence, which poses a threat for demarcation and stable countries in the region. Israel’s participation to find stability in the region will increase its revenues, open new markets for its goods and meet the Israeli youth’s desire in a welfare state with equal rights. Therefore, Israel’s need to bolster its military, information, security and economic capabilities in the region is an existential one based on common strategic interests. But how did Israeli authorities respond to this opportunity? They are responding by building more settlements, enacting undemocratic laws, turning their backs to the West and the regional opportunity for cooperation with moderate Arab states! Despite the available opportunities for Israel to engage and build confidence with countries in the region, it seems that the message conveyed to the chiefs of the five powerful agencies in Israel - the army, the Shin Bet, the Mossad, the Police and the judiciary – is no to taking the initiative and action in the region. The majority of former security officials do not understand how can Israel hide behind building settlements and stand helpless in front of the opportunity of the century. The dynamic of time is so important. American President Barack Obama once considered Recep Tayyip Erdogan one of the closest five leaders in the world. After sometime Erdogan, however, revealed his extremism and the Americans moved to cooperate with his Kurdish enemies. This dynamic provides Israel with a big opportunity today. Israel, however, is cornered and Israeli Premier Benyamin Netanyahu is utilizing the regional desire to cooperate with Israel to boost settlements and racism. Because there is no one to pressure him in the region now, which means that wasting the available opportunity is a huge loss. Source:By Sefi Rachlevsky</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fbb7ae0.jpg" width="1920" height="1280" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Wed, 01 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5828 at http://epc.ae Israel and Looking for a New Strategic Track http://epc.ae/publication/israel-and-looking-for-a-new-strategic-track <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Israel and Looking for a New Strategic Track</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 10/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>A new strategic vision based on the possibility of a growing danger by extreme Sunni Jihadist organizations is taking shape in the region. Israel might find itself in direct confrontation with the Islamic State (IS) and its likes, which are active in border areas close to Israel, such as Sinai, Jordan and the Golan Heights. Therefore, Tel Aviv is obliged to develop new systems for intelligence and the army. It can cooperate with some countries in the region in response to threats posed by these terrorist organizations. The Middle East is in a critical condition, which calls on Israel to exert efforts to get rid of previous patterns, which have characterized Israeli security policy for years. Furthermore, Israel must change its strategic thinking to be in line with the new regional conditions. For instance, hostility is rootinized in the thinking of the Syrian regime and Hezbollah and cooperating with Israel might expose it; Still, Israel could help them combat extreme Sunni forces. Common interests with Israel’s old enemies do not make them friends; still, they should not be neglected in light of the common challenges facing Israel and its adversaries. The most complicated challenge facing Israel is finding a way to combat extreme Sunni forces indirectly without tampering with intelligence efforts against security threats by Shiites. At the same time, struggle against Hezbollah must continue by slowing down the growth of its military capabilities and preserve the military deterrence against it. Tel Aviv should also continue its diplomatic and political efforts to prevent Iran from completing its nuclear program, as well as, blocking Tehran’s support to Hamas. Source:By Chavi Siboni</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fbd3ddc.jpg" width="1920" height="1268" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Wed, 01 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5829 at http://epc.ae Message by Moderate Arab Countries to Netanyahu http://epc.ae/publication/message-by-moderate-arab-countries-to-netanyahu <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Message by Moderate Arab Countries to Netanyahu</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 10/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The speech by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi in the international donors’ conference to rebuild Gaza which was held in Cairo recently is one of the most important speeches by an Arab leader in recent years and an important message by moderate Arab countries. Al-Sisi first addressed the Israeli people, then Netanyahu’s government and clearly called for endorsing the Arab Peace Initiative and push forward by establishing a Palestinian state to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Egyptian leader touched upon the essence of the initiative and reminded the Israeli public that the successive Israeli governments have not dealt seriously and positively with this initiative since it was announced in 2002. Al-Sisi reminded Israelis that there is a partner for peace and moving forward to establish the Palestinian state embodies peace, diplomatic ties and normalization with a large part of the Arab World.</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fae2708.jpg" width="1920" height="1262" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Wed, 01 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5820 at http://epc.ae Israel Develops its Strategy in Eastern Mediterranean http://epc.ae/publication/israel-develops-its-strategy-in-eastern-mediterranean <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Israel Develops its Strategy in Eastern Mediterranean</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 09/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Israeli think tanks, such as the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies and the Institute for National Security Studies, reiterate the strategic importance of the maritime arena and its impact on Israel’s national security in a turbulent region, the impact of the declining US role in the region and the world on Israel and the new shifts in the region. From a geopolitical perspective, the eastern Mediterranean region is an important vital sphere for Israel. The region has been a major arena for international interactions and competition between Western and Eastern superpowers since the end of World War II. Israel looks to the Eastern Mediterranean as a beachhead to employ power around the Middle East. The Eastern Mediterranean is a pivotal crossroads between East and West through the Silk Road and the Suez Canal. These routes are the main link between the West and oil-rich Arab Gulf States and the emerging market of India. This region is a hub for important international issues such as radical Islam, international terrorism and nuclear proliferation (Israel and Iran.) The decline of the US hegemony and the rise of a new strategic landscape in a region affected by shift from unipolar order into a new multipolar sub-order are some of the important factors for turmoil in this region. The shifting geopolitical map of the Middle East in recent decades led to the rise of emerging challenges in Eastern Mediterranean. The following are some of the major trends in the Middle East from an Israeli perspective: 1. The turmoil in the region has shaken the concept and meaning of the Arab state, which was the foundation of regional order, because some states are disintegrating and turning into failing states; 2. Demographically inhomogeneous states are likely to disintegrate from within and pave the way for the rise of autonomous cantons on geographic, sectarian, cultural or functional bases. These cantons usually fall under the control of extreme elements that impose its authority and power by force; 3. There is a growing role for regional players due to the weakness of Arab states, notably Iran and Turkey; 4. Confronting Islamist terrorist organizations is a major challenge for regular armies in some countries of the region, which might lead to the disintegration and fall of these armies like what happened to the Iraqi and Yemeni armies; 5. Israel today is surrounded by danger: Hezbollah in southern Lebanon, Syrian rebel groups, which include Jihadist organizations located near the Golan Heights, Hamas in Gaza and Jihadist organizations in Sinai. Source: The Institute for National Security Studies and Israeli studies’ centers</p> <p>Image Source: Reuters Pictures</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19fb9efb0.jpg" width="1920" height="1282" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/israel" hreflang="en">Israel</a></div> Mon, 01 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5827 at http://epc.ae Opportunities and Fields of Cooperation between Iran and India in Afghanistan http://epc.ae/publication/opportunities-and-fields-of-cooperation-between-iran-and-india-in-afghanistan <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Opportunities and Fields of Cooperation between Iran and India in Afghanistan</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 02/01/2014 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Afghanistan has a special importance in the foreign policies of India and Iran; both countries have joint cooperation in Afghanistan. There is also huge opportunities and fields to enhance cooperation between the two countries in Afghanistan after the expected US draw down in 2014. Cooperation covers political, economic and strategic fields, which are of great importance to both countries. The translated article unveils the vision of the Revolutionary Guard Corps for cooperation, objectives and opportunities between India and Iran in Afghanistan.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19f6091dd.jpg" width="380" height="244" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/iran" hreflang="en">Iran</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">0</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publisher field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publisher</div> <div class="field__item">Emirates Policy Center</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-eisbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">EISBN</div> <div class="field__item">0</div> </div> Sat, 01 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5717 at http://epc.ae The Social Composition of Shiites in Afghanistan http://epc.ae/publication/the-social-composition-of-shiites-in-afghanistan <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Social Composition of Shiites in Afghanistan</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 12/01/2013 - 00:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Iran exerted huge efforts to steer Shiites in Afghanistan, unite their ranks and put them in a political framework to ensure their subordination to the Guardian of the Jurist in Tehran. The US and Iranian interests converged in Afghanistan after Sep. 11, 2001 attacks; this opened the way for Iran to move freely in the social environment of Afghani Shiites. Although the article is predominantly descriptive of the Afghani Shiite society, still it carries out important indications about the mechanisms and characteristics of Iran’s influence among Shiite minorities.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-cover-full field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/migrated/57dd19f611711.jpg" width="427" height="243" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/publication-type/translation" hreflang="en">Translations</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-group field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">Paper</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-unit field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/research-unit/iran" hreflang="en">Iran</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">0</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-publisher field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publisher</div> <div class="field__item">Emirates Policy Center</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-eisbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">EISBN</div> <div class="field__item">0</div> </div> Sun, 01 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 5718 at http://epc.ae